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Tuberculosis lung pathology outlines

CDC - Tuberculosis (TB), WHO Tuberculosis; Bennett: Mandell, Douglas and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases: 2-Volume, 8th Ed, 2014, Odze: Odze and Goldblum Surgical Pathology of the GI Tract, Liver, Biliary Tract and Pancreas Pathology, 3rd Ed, 2014, Kradin: Diagnostic Pathology of Infectious Disease, 1st Ed, 201 Definition / general. Disease occasionally seen in less developed countries. Small intestinal disease may be transmitted via contaminated milk. Symptoms: abdominal pain, malabsorption, strictures, perforation, fistula Post primary tuberculosis occurs in immunocompetent adults, is restricted to the lungs and accounts for 80% of all clinical cases and nearly 100% of transmission of infection. The supply of human tissues with post primary tuberculosis plummeted with the introduction of antibiotics decades before the Primary (inoculation) tuberculosis of the skin is the cutaneous analogue of the pulmonary ghon focus Primary cutaneous tuberculosis may be associated with tattooing, ritual circumcision, nose piercing, inoculation of homeopathic solutions or injury by contaminated objects to laboratory workers, surgeons or prosectors; there may be no obvious source of infectio Secondary tuberculosis: seen mostly in adults as a reactivation of previous infection (or reinfection), particularly when health status declines. The granulomatous inflammation is much more florid and widespread. Typically, the upper lung lobes are most affected, and cavitation can occur

Primary tuberculosis. The Ghon complex is the pathognomonic macroscopical lesion of primary pulmonary tuberculosis and it results from Koch bacillus ( Mycobacterium tuberculosis) initial infection, in children. It contains three elements (Figure 1) : The Ghon focus is a small nodular lesion (aprox. 1 cm), white-yellowish, with central caseous. Page views in 2021 to date (this page and chapter topics): 615,30 Tutorial contains images and text for pathology education. On closer inspection, the granulomas have areas of caseous necrosis. This is very extensive granulomatous disease. This pattern of multiple caseating granulomas primarily in the upper lobes is most characteristic of secondary (reactivation) tuberculosis. However, fungal granulomas. Tutorial contains images and text for pathology education. Here is the gross appearance of a lung with tuberculosis. Scattered tan granulomas are present, mostly in the upper lung fields. Some of the larger granulomas have central caseation. Granulomatous disease of the lung grossly appears as irregularly sized rounded nodules that are firm and.

Pathology of post primary tuberculosis of the lung: an

  1. Tutorial contains images and text for pathology education. When the immune response is poor or is overwhelmed by an extensive infection, then it is possible to see the gross pattern of granulomatous disease seen here. This is a miliary pattern of granulomas because there are a multitude of small tan granulomas, about 2 to 4 mm in size.
  2. TB lymphadenitis may occur due to either of the following reasons. 1. Spread from the infections of tonsil to cervical lymph nodes. 2.Reactivation of healed focus which was involved during primary infection. 3.Spread from the lung to the mediastinal lymph nodes. 4.Hematogenous spread as in the case of military tuberculosis
  3. e special stains for acid-fast bacteria (AFB) in cases of granulomatous lung disease. However, misconceptions do exist, including the concept that finding AFB in caseating granulomas confirms the dia

Pathology of Tuberculosis - University of Uta

It is unlikely that many important features of the pathology of tuberculosis were not described. However, studies of the pathology of post primary tuberculosis effectively ended when interest in the disease and availability of human lung tissues plummeted with the introduction of antibiotics in the 1950's and caseous necrosis in tissue. Primary Tb infection occurs in the lung, the portal through which infection spreads to other sites such as the kidney, spine, geni tals and the peritoneum [1]. TbP occurs in 4% - 10% of patients with extra pulmonary tuberculosis . Clinically active TbP can occur [2 A past history of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a risk factor for long-term respiratory impairment. Post-TB lung dysfunction often goes unrecognised, despite its relatively high prevalence and its association with reduced quality of life. Importantly, specific host and pathogen factors causing lung impairment remain unclear. Host immune responses probably play a dominant role in lung damage. Introduction. Tuberculosis accounts for millions of active disease cases and deaths in both developed and developing countries. According to the World Health Organization, there were an estimated 9.6 million incident cases of tuberculosis globally in 2014: 5.4 million among men, 3.2 million among women and 1.0 million among children ().Tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) results from. From Libre Pathology. also lung hemorrhage, is a potentially serious conditions with a large number of possible underlying Infection, e.g. tuberculosis. Bronchiectasis. Pulmonary hemorrhage syndromes: Goodpasture syndrome. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis. Vasculitis-associated hemorrhage (hypersensitivity angiitis, Wegener's.

Here, we report a primary form of tonsillar tuberculosis in a 76-year-old male, in whom, no pulmonary tuberculosis was documented. Tuberculosis is one of the major causes of ill health and death. Pulmonary cytopathology, also lung cytology, is a subset of cytopathology.. This article deals only with pulmonary cytopathology (FNAs, sputum samples). Pleural cavity specimens are dealt with in the mesothelial cytopathology article.. An introduction to cytopathology is in the cytopathology article. An introduction to lung pathology is in the lung article Hunter RL (2011) Pathology of post primary tuberculosis of the lung: an illustrated critical review. Tuberculosis 91:497-509 CrossRef PubMed PubMedCentral Google Scholar 4 Chest radiographs in pulmonary tuberculosis Introduction Etiology Epidemiology Pathophysiology Clinical features Diagnosis Treatment Pathogenesis of Tuberculosis A. Infiltrates in left lung B. Ghon's complex (Primary tuberculosis) C. Bilateral advanced pulmonary tuberculosis and cavitation in apical area of right lung A BC 32

Primary pulmonary tuberculosis - Atlas of Patholog

TB is caused by the bacterium M tuberculosis. The infection destroys patients' lung tissue, causing them to cough up the bacteria, which then spread through the air and can be inhaled by others. The mechanism behind this lung damage is poorly understood. Patients require at least six months of antibiotic treatment, but resistant strains of the. About 1.8 billion people, or one-quarter of the world's population, are infected with tuberculosis but most of these people have latent TB. About 10 million people have active TB worldwide. In the United States, TB is much less common.TB can almost always be treated and cured if you take medicine as directed

Pathology Outlines - Lun

Introduction. Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious, infectious disease, due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT), which usually lasts throughout the life course and determines the formation of tubercles in different parts of the body [].MT has very ancient origins: it has survived over 70,000 years and it currently infects nearly 2 billion people worldwide []; with around 10.4 million new cases of. Tutorial contains images and text for pathology education. This is the microscopic appearance of an exogenous lipid pneumonia in which lipid vacuoles appear, mainly along airways, accompanied by an inflammatory response that can contain foreign body giant cells. The term exogenous refers to the origin of the lipid material outside the body

Pathology Outlines - Asthma

Tuberculous pleural effusion is the second most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (after lymphatic involvement) and is the most common cause of pleural effusion in areas where tuberculosis is endemic . Tuberculous pleural effusion is synonymous with the term tuberculous pleurisy Pneumothorax is a common complication and can occur at presentation or at other times during the course of the disease. Pathologically, interstitial fibrosis takes the form of a dense consolidation with some preservation of alveolar septal outlines and demonstrates a distinctly abrupt interface with residual normal lung Granulomatous lung diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders that have a wide spectrum of pathologies with variable clinical manifestations and outcomes. Precise clinical evaluation, laboratory testing, pulmonary function testing, radiological imaging including high-resolution computed tomography and often histopathological assessment contribute to make a confident diagnosis of.

The development of infiltrative tuberculosis is associated with the progression of focal tuberculosis, the appearance and rapid expansion of the infiltration zone around fresh or old tuberculosis foci. The spread of perifocal inflammation leads to a significant increase in the volume of damage to the lung tissue Lung, Right Upper Lobe, Core Biopsy: - INVASIVE ADENOCARCINOMA, NON-MUCINOUS. Comment: The adenocarcinoma is positive for TTF-1 and napsin. EGFR/ALK testing was ordered. Mucinous adenocarcinoma with noncontributory stains Lung, Right Upper Lobe, Core Biopsy: - ADENOCARCINOMA, MUCINOUS, see comment Histopathology of lymph nodal tuberculosis - University Hospital experience P JAYALAKSHMI, MRCPATH, AK MALIK, MD, HS S00-H00, PhD* Department of Pathology and *Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Univc~rsity c$ Maluyu

Pathology Outlines - Sarcoidosis

Lung pathology 1. LUNG PATHOLOGY Here is the gross appearance of a lung with tuberculosis. Scattered tan granulomas are present, mostly in the upper lung fields. Some of the larger granulomas have central caseation. They have rounded outlines. The one toward the center of the photograph contains Langhans giant cells. Granulomas are. In this review, representative types of granulomatous lymphadenitis (GLA) are described. GLA can be classified as noninfectious GLA and infectious GLA. Noninfectious GLA includes sarcoidosis and sarcoid-like reaction. The cause of sarcoidosis remains unknown, but it has good prognosis. Sarcoid-like

Pulmonary Patholog

Introduction. Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the 10 foremost causes of death in the world [].More than 95% of the deaths due to tuberculosis take place in African and Asian countries with low or intermediate income [].In Cameroon the national program for the fight against tuberculosis (PNLT) counted 26 110 cases of TB, all forms taken together, of which 15 080 were smear positive cases Talcosis, a granulomatous inflammation of the lungs caused by inhalation of talcum dust, is a rare form of pneumoconiosis. Besides inhalative occupational exposure, intravenous abuse of adulterated drugs is a major cause for this condition. Minerals such as talcum (magnesium silicate) and sand (predominant silicon dioxide) are used to increase both volume and weight of illicit substances

Pneumoconiosis are part of restrictive chronic interstitial lung diseases and have mainly professional character. Depending on the inhaled air pollutants, pneumoconiosis are divided into : Coal workers pneumoconiosis / anthracosis, Silicosis, Asbestosis, and Berylliosis. The severity of the lesions depends on the length of exposure, type. Interpretation. Purple (or blue) = Gram positive organisms. Red = Gram negative organisms, nuclei. Yellow = background. Many of the bacteria are quite small relative to lymphocytes; Escherichia coli is 1-2 micrometers long x 0.25 micrometers in diameter. Epithelial cell nuclei & stromal cell nuclei may stain red Lung abscess pathology outlines. Lung (nontumor & tumor) Page views in 2021 to date (this page and chapter topics): 565,26 Seen here are two lung abscesses, one in the upper lobe and one in the lower lobe of this left lung. There are adjacent areas of tan consolidation with bronchopneumonia Sarcoidosis is non-necrotizing granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. It classically associated with (pulmonary) hilar lymphadenopathy. It may be found in almost any organ. This article covers the topic in general and focuses on the lung aspects. Cardiac sarcoidosis is dealt with separately

INTRODUCTION. Miliary tuberculosis (TB) refers to clinical disease resulting from the hematogenous dissemination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.The term miliary was coined in 1700 by John Jacobus Manget, who likened the appearance of the involved lung with its surface covered with firm small white nodules to numerous millet seeds ().Miliary TB can arise as a result of progressive primary. Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex infection. Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is a type of non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection . It is relatively common and continues to pose significant therapeutic challenges. In addition, the role of MAC in pulmonary pathology remains controversial in many instances Miliary tuberculosis (TB) is the widespread dissemination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (see the image below) via hematogenous spread. Classic miliary TB is defined as milletlike (mean, 2 mm; range, 1-5 mm) seeding of TB bacilli in the lung, as evidenced on chest radiography Organizing pneumonia (formerly named bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia or BOOP) is a clinical, radiological and histological entity that is classified as an Interstitial Lung Disease. The understanding of this family of diseases has seen great progress over the past twenty years

GATA3 is a transcription factor important in the differentiation of breast epithelia, urothelia, and subsets of T lymphocytes. It has been suggested to be useful in the evaluation of carcinomas of mammary or urothelial origin or metastatic carcinomas, but its distribution in normal and neoplastic tissues is incompletely mapped Syn: Rangoon Beggar's Disease, Vietnamese time bomb and Whitmore's Disease. Melioidosis is a rare infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, a small gram-negative bacillus in the soil and surface water of Southeast Asia and other tropical areas

This review outlines the pathology of sarcoidosis in the main systems of the body. (80%) most frequently involved. 70 Open lung biopsy studies have shown that the lungs are involved in nearly 100% of patients with zirconium, beryllium, and a variety of infectious diseases, including tuberculosis, tuberculoid leprosy, atypical. tion, tuberculosis, atypical mycobacterial disease, pneumoco-niosis, immunocompromised status (Crohn's disease, primary biliary cirrhosis and Sjögren's syndrome), extrinsic allergic inflammatory alveolitis (farmer's lung) and anticancer chemo-therapy, as well as associations with chemicals (beryllium Lobar pneumonia Pathology outlines Lobar pneumonia - Wikipedi . Lobular pneumonia is a form of pneumonia characterized by inflammatory exudate within the intra-alveolar space resulting in consolidation that affects a large and continuous area of the lobe of a lung

Video: Pathology of pulmonary tuberculosis and non-tuberculous

Additional and Relevant Useful Information for Fetal Adenocarcinoma of Lung: Lung cancer incidence is around 35 cases per 100,000 populations: The incidence of lung cancer in non-smokers is 1-2 cases per 20,000 populations per year; its incidence in smokers is 20-30 times higher than that of non-smoker tuberculosis (TB), infectious disease that is caused by the tubercle bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis.In most forms of the disease, the bacillus spreads slowly and widely in the lungs, causing the formation of hard nodules (tubercles) or large cheeselike masses that break down the respiratory tissues and form cavities in the lungs.Blood vessels also can be eroded by the advancing disease. Endometrial TB is one form of broadly classified genital tract tuberculosis which also includes tuberculosis of fallopian tube, ovary, cervix, and other parts of genital tract of a woman. The tuberculosis bacteria can affect any part of the body. But in majority of cases it affects the lung which is the primary site of infection Granulomatous pleuritis is a descriptive term referring to granulomatous inflammation of the pleura. Causes of granulomatous pleuritis include infectious and noninfectious etiologies. Tuberculosis is the most common infectious cause. However, infection from nontuberculous mycobacteria, fungi, (e.g., Cryptococcus neoformans ), parasites, and. is the most common lung pathology of hospitalized patients. It is a sudden blockage of an artery in the lung. It may be fatal. ¬ It is asymptomatic in about 80% of cases. ¬ It is difficult to diagnose even in those with symptoms. ¬ More than 95% of embolisms arise from deep vein thrombosis in the lower extremities

Tuberculous meningitis ()This 2 ½ year old child was admitted to a country hospital following a seizure. She showed the features of stage III tuberculous meningitis and her condition rapidly deteriorated despite initiation of treatment Pathology: Gross lesions: Lesions resemble tuberculosis for similar clinical and pathological features. Chronic cough, chest pain,night sweat, malaise, loss of weight etc. Microscopic lesions: Yeast-like forms in tissue section. A clear space or artifactual holo may be evident due to the retraction of the basophilic fungal cell cytoplasm. Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) is a newly described form of interstitial lung disease that originates in the upper lung zones and typically progresses to involve the entire lung. The disease may be idiopathic but is often associated with other pre- or coexisting conditions

Pathology of Tuberculosis: How the Pathology of Human

In the solid variant of papillary carcinoma, the cyst formation is minimal or absent. The tumor is composed almost entirely of solid, non-frond forming epithelium. Small cords of fibrovascular stroma make it possible to recognize it as papillary carcinoma. slide 9 of 18. Advertisement. Tweets by @WebPathology differential-diagnosis-in-cytopathology 2/8 Downloaded from qa.mailshell.com on August 11, 2021 by guest nipple-like and often finger-like fronds.In thi Tuberculosis of the Skeletal System . Download or Read online Tuberculosis of the Skeletal System full in PDF, ePub and kindle. This book written by SM Tuli and published by JP Medical Ltd which was released on 30 March 2016 with total pages 380

Granuloma - Libre Patholog

Causes. Pulmonary TB is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M tuberculosis). TB is contagious. This means the bacteria are easily spread from an infected person to someone else. You can get TB by breathing in air droplets from a cough or sneeze of an infected person. The resulting lung infection is called primary TB Four patients with clinical diagnosis of interstitial lung disease (ILD) are presented. In these patients, lung biopsies revealed bronchocentric granulomatosis (BG), pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), and in one biopsy, the clinical manifestations suggested tuberculous primo-infection with systemic dissemination Thirty-four surgical specimens of tuberculous lobes and lungs were studied in order to correlate the clinical indications for resection with the pathology. Although the indications for resection are not clear cut, certain statements can now be made that may aid the surgeon in the selection of suitable cases.The patient with tuberculosis has often been a chronic invalid with irreparable damage. Background: The risk of encountering tuberculosis (TB) has reduced with the decreased incidence of the disease; however, it still can be found at autopsy. Aim: To assess the magnitude of exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis at autopsy in a large general hospital setting, in a country with low incidence. Methods: Retrospective search of the autopsy records from 1991 to 2004 Classification and Pathology of Lung Cancer 449. minority of such tumors are of mucinous or mixed type. If the tumor contains a small focus (<5 mm) of invasive growth, the tumor is classified microinvasive adenocarci-noma (MIA). Invasion usually induces formation of a desmoplastic stroma. Invasio

Tuberculous involvement of the brain and spinal cord are common neurological disorders in developing countries and have recently shown a resurgence in developed ones. Tuberculous meningitis is an important manifestation and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis is based on clinical features, cerebrospinal fluid changes, and imaging characteristics Payam Nahid, Philip C. Hopewell, in International Encyclopedia of Public Health (Second Edition), 2017. Lymphatic Tuberculosis. Tuberculous lymphadenitis is a common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Cervical adenopathy is most common, but inguinal, axillary, mesenteric, mediastinal, and intramammary involvement have also been described (Golden and Vikram, 2005) Pulmonary drug toxicity is a common and possibly underdiagnosed cause of acute and chronic lung disease (, 1 ). There are numerous agents with potential toxic effects on the lungs. These agents include cytotoxic drugs such as bleomycin, methotrexate, and cyclophosphamide and noncytotoxic drugs such as nitrofurantoin, sulfasalazine, and amiodarone Pathology of Caseous Necrosis: Though the pathology of this types of necrosis is already explained in the paragraphs behind but I felt the need to present it separately since in there, it is quite mixed with other content. In the case of tuberculosis, the hilar lymph node gets infected by it and that is when the caseous necrosis happens

Pathology of pulmonary aspergillomas - PubMe

Giant cells are big cells with multiple nuclei. They come in different flavours, which are suggestive of causality. This article deals with the classic types of giant cells. A more general differential diagnosis of giant cells is in giant cell lesions Other identified causes of rounded atelectasis include silicosis, post-tuberculosis and drug-related. It is often asymptomatic. Typically involving the lower lobes, rounded atelectasis consists of thickened pleura beneath which there is a generally well-circumscribed area of markedly atelectatic lung parenchyma. It may be bilateral Cholesterol pneumonitis or endogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP) result from the accumulation of endogenous cholesterol esters in the lungs, leading to a fibroblastic interstitial inflammatory process, and may be complicated by a secondary bacterial or fungal infection. Striking features were cholesterol clefts in the alveolar and interstitial spaces and alveolar wall-thickening with lymphocytic.

1Department of Pathology, Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada 2Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 3Department of Pathology, Eisenhower Medical Center, Rancho Mirage, California 4Department of Pathology, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City. Reactivation of latent M tuberculosis is seen in the subapical posterior lung segments and is likely due to high pO2 concentration and limited lymphatic drainage. Host factors that contribute to reactivation include poor nutrition, substandard (close) living conditions, pulmonary silicosis, cancer, diabetes mellitus, advanced age.

Comments: Walthard cell rests are benign clusters of epithelial cells resembling transitional cells (urothelium). They are most commonly found in the connective tissue of the fallopian tube but may also be seen in mesoovarium, mesosalpinx, and the ovarian hilum. They appear as small yellow-white or greyish nodules measuring upto 2 mm in size. The epithelial cells have elongated oval nuclei. The normal volume of pleural fluid is around .26ml/kg body weight. 1 , 2. 3. What is the function of pleural fluid? The pleural fluid is a thin serous fluid which acts as lubricating agent and prevents friction between the lungs and the ribs when breathing. It also keeps the lungs inflated. 4

The organisms most commonly found in granulomas of the lung are mycobacteria and fungi.1 ,Mycobacterium tuberculosis is common in the developing world, while nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are frequently cultured from granulomas in the United States. The most common fungal causes of pulmonary granulomas are Histoplasma, Cryptococcus, Coccidioides, and Blastomyces Lung Pathology is visible for you to search on this website. We have 10 coloring page sample about Lung Pathology including paper sample, paper example, coloring page pictures, coloring page sample, Resume models, Resume example, Resume pictures, and more. In this post, we also have variety of available Resume example about Lung Pathology with.

lung is one of the most frequently affected organs in granulomatous vasculitides, a classification of pulmonary granulomatous vasculitides has been proposed (Box 2) [4]. However, no classification has been devised to include all the different enti-ties characterized by, or associated with, granulo-matous vasculitis in one or several organ(s) o Zeng J, Liu Z, Shen G, Zhang Y, Li L, Wu Z, Luo D, Gu Q, Mao H, Wang L. MRI evaluation of pulmonary lesions and lung tissue changes induced by tuberculosis. Int J Infect Dis. 2019 May; 82:138-146. [PubMed: 30872041

Pneumonia - Libre Pathology

TUBERCULOUS LYMPHADENITIS Pathology Made Simpl

Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is an umbrella term used for a large group of diseases that cause scarring (fibrosis) of the lungs. The scarring causes stiffness in the lungs which makes it difficult to breathe and get oxygen to the bloodstream. Read More medical pathology pathology in outline format with mouse over histology previews Understanding Your Pathology Report: Lung Cancer. When your lung was biopsied, the samples taken were studied under the microscope by a specialized doctor with many years of training called a pathologist.The pathologist sends your doctor a report that gives a diagnosis for each sample taken. Information in this report will be used to help manage your care

Pathology Outlines - Coal workers&#39; pneumoconiosis

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Adenocarcinoma in situ, minimally invasive adenocarcinoma and invasive adenocarcinoma of the lung are relatively new classification entities which replace the now-defunct term bronchoalveolar carcinoma (BAC).. In 2011 the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) and several other societies jointly revised the classification for adenocarcinoma of lung 13 Aspergilloma mainly affects people with underlying cavitary lung disease such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis and systemic immunodeficiency. Aspergillus fumigatus, the most common causative species, is typically inhaled as small (2 to 3 micron) spores. The fungus settles in a cavity and is able to grow free from. blood in the pleural cavity caused by rupture of blood vessels secondary to lung inflammation or tuberculosis. Hydropneumothorax. has and serous effusion in the pleural cavity (pneumohydrothorax) Pathology Lesson 10. 63 terms. jessica456654. Pathology Lesson 9. 30 terms. jessica456654. Pathology Lesson 8. 69 terms. jessica456654. Pathology.

Pathology Outlines - Silicosis

56 ╛↜ ↜渀 A Color Atlas of Comparative Pathology of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Pathology of Tuberculosis in the Human Lung ╛↜ ↜渀 57 Figure 5.1 (opposite page)╠Primary TB sequelae. This diagram outlines the possible outcomes following primary TB infection Comments: Acid-fast bacilli: The cell walls of mycobacteria and related pathogens contain mycolic acids - which are waxy substances composed of complex branched hydrocarbons. They make the bacterial cell wall resistant to many harsh chemicals such as detergents and strong acids. These lipid substances allow the bacteria to retain stains like carbolfuchsin even when they are decolorized with. Septic emboli can originate from different sources 5: right-sided infective endocarditis, particularly tricuspid valve (occasionally pulmonary valve 19) infection elsewhere in the body (e.g. soft tissue infection) with associated septal defects. infected deep venous thrombosis. immunological deficiencies Tuberculosis Definition Tuberculosis (TB) is a potentially fatal contagious disease that can affect almost any part of the body but is mainly an infection of the lungs. It is caused by a bacterial microorganism, the tubercle bacillus or Mycobacterium tuberculosis Granulomatous inflammation is a distinctive form of chronic inflammation produced in response to various infectious, autoimmune, toxic, allergic, and neoplastic conditions ().It is defined by the presence of mononuclear leukocytes, specifically histiocytes (macrophages), which respond to various chemical mediators of cell injury Pott disease is tuberculosis of the spine, usually due to haematogenous spread from other sites, often the lungs. The lower thoracic and upper lumbar vertebrae areas of the spine are most often affected.. It causes a kind of tuberculous arthritis of the intervertebral joints. The infection can spread from two adjacent vertebrae into the adjoining intervertebral disc space