Home

What causes punctate calcifications

Breast calcifications Causes - Mayo Clini

Calcification: Types, Causes, and Diagnosi

  1. Typical pancreatic calcifications are diagnostic of chronic pancreatitis. They develop in 40% to 60% of patients with alcoholic pancreatitis, and approximately 90% of calcific pancreatitis is caused by alcoholism. Unfortunately, calcifications occur late in the course of chronic pancreatitis, being associated with severe disease
  2. Autoimmune disorders such as the CREST syndrome or dermatomyositis can also cause soft tissue calcifications. The CREST syndrome consists of calcinosis cutis (usually seen under the skin of the hands or wrists), Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal disorders, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia
  3. Other benign processes that can lead to calcifications on mammograms include: past injuries to or infections in the breast benign growths in the breast, such as fibroadenomas, a common type of benign breast tumor breast cysts (fluid-filled sacs
  4. As prostate fibrosis develops, there would be calcification spots. What causes prostate calcification? Prostate calcification can be caused by various of factors: prostate tuberculosis, damage of prostate, parasite ova, and tumour calcification. Slight prostate calcification can also be found on some health men
  5. e whether ultrasound calcifications truly.
  6. Multiple intracranial calcifications. Dr Henry Knipe and Assoc Prof Frank Gaillard et al. Intracranial calcifications are common in certain locations and often are of no clinical concern. The two most commonly encountered types of calcification include: normal age-related intracranial calcifications. intracranial arterial atherosclerosis

Causes One of the main causes of pericardial calcification is pericarditis. This refers to inflammation within the pericardium, of which the cause is often unknown. Major heart surgery may give.. It is not known what causes calcifications to develop in breast tissue, but they are not caused by eating too much calcium or taking too many calcium supplements. They are seen on mammograms of about half of all women over age 50. However, they also are seen in about 10 percent of mammograms on younger women Calcifications associated with a dilated milk duct. An old injury to the breast. Inflammation due to infection. Skin calcifications caused by dermatitis (a rash) or metallic residues from powder, deodorants or ointments

Breast calcifications are calcium deposits within breast tissue. They appear as white spots or flecks on a mammogram but can't be felt during a breast exam Also known as pulmonary calcification, it is associated with conditions such as chronic kidney failure, lung amyloidosis and infection. Risk factors for the condition include alveolar damage, hypercalcemia and alkalosis. According to PubMed, calcification in the lungs can occur alongside several systemic and pulmonary complications Breast calcifications are small deposits of calcium that can appear in the breast tissue. These are visible on mammograms and most are typically benign. Some forms, however, may indicate a form of. Benign endometrial calcifications with or without bone fragments are uncommon clinicopathologic findings. They can be detected during pelvic ultrasonography or as incidental pathologic findings. They have been found to be associated with infertility and menstrual anomalies in young adult patients an

Calcification in the liver and their causes Calicinet is a solid ball composed of calcium salts. They can replace the dead liver cells that happens after inflammatory and infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, malaria, hydatid disease, amebiasis. Similar formations occur in lesions of the liver Giardia, helminths and other parasites Breast calcifications are common and most often not a cause for concern. However, there are some calcifications in the breast that might prompt further evaluation. We as breast imaging doctors know that the need for further workup is a cause of anxiety. We hope to relieve some of that anxiety by discussing breast calcifications in detail In rare cases, calcification can occur in the brain in what is called primary familial brain calcification disorder 13. This is a neurodegenerative disease that shows up in individuals in the middle of life, and can cause symptoms such as loss of motor development and slurred speech Mucinous ovarian malignancy is another less common cause in women. Curvilinear, nodular, or punctate wall calcifications can be visualized in both benign and malignant mucoceles of the appendix when these are identified as the primary tumor A number of factors can cause calcification in a woman's breast, including normal aging, inflammation, and past trauma to the area. Calcium from your diet does not cause breast calcifications

Intracranial calcifications on CT: an updated revie

Pancreatic calcifications Radiology Reference Article

Calcifications: Small Round/Punctate | Radiology KeyThe Radiology Assistant : Breast - Calcifications

Dystrophic Calcification Causes There are many causes behind the dystrophic calcification. Some of them are as follows: Chronic kidney failure due to necrosis occurred. Hyperthyroidism both primary and secondary can cause dystrophic calcification. In bowel syndrome, excessive absorption of calcium is the cause behind dystrophic calcification.. Suture calcifications are most often seen with catgut suture material. With the increased use of silk sutures, they are less frequently encountered than in the past. Round & Punctate Calcifications . Round calcifications are typically uniform in size (≥0.5 mm) and very round—like peas in a pod ( Fig. 6-15 ). Punctate calcifications are. Breast calcifications. Breast calcifications are a build up of calcium in breast tissue. This build up is called calcium deposits or calcifications. These calcifications cannot be felt during a normal breast exam, so they are usually detected and diagnosed during a routine mammogram. When breast calcifications are seen on a mammogram, they show. Renal stones can be small, resembling punctate foci of calcifications, or they may be large enough to fill the renal calyces and are known as staghorn calculi. The stones are also visible within the ureters, which travel down the lateral borders of the transverse processes of the lumbar spine

The calcifications are focal with a linear distribution. Category 4. Figure 5.3 Round and punctate calcifications. This cluster of calcifications is characterized by well-circumscribed, high-density, round calcifications. No linear form or linear distribution is seen. These commonly form in the acini. Category 2 2. Cerebrotaretinal microangiopathy with cysts and calcifications. Infrequent disease that causes various types of alterations in the connections between the visual organs and the brain, in addition to facilitating bleeding problems in the digestive tract. The main characteristics of this disorder is the presence of cysts and calcifications in. Punctate means a tiny dot, like the tap of a sewing needle onto the surface of a sheet of paper. Whether puncture or punctuation help you remember, it means tiny dot. Punctate calcification or microcalcification is a good benign thing. Even a cluster of punctate calcifications would be benign Benign calcifications include skin, vascular, coarse, rod-like, round, punctate, lucent-centered eggshell and suture calcifications, along with milk of calcium. Calcifications of intermediate concern include amorphous and coarse heterogeneous calcifications. Fine pleomorphic and fine linear calcifications are considered to likely be malignant

Multiple splenic calcifications are a relatively common incidental finding on CT imaging although calcification to this extent is very unusual. The causes of splenic calcification are numerous; histoplasmosis ( Histoplasma capsulatum , predominately found in soil around the Mississippi river), tuberculosis, brucellosis ( Brucella abortus. The stated cause of death said mitral valve prolapse with severe calcification of the annular ring, which caused him to go into sudden cardiac arrest. All of his other organs looked good according to the doctor who did his autopsy and she said she couldn't even tell he was a smoker because his lungs looked good Calcification and the Kidneys. Calcification is the abnormal accumulation of calcium salts in body tissue. This abnormal accumulation of calcium in the kidney is referred to as nephrocalcinosis. Calcifications are detected by CT in 34.1% and by histology in 56.8% of mucinous cystic tumors; calcifications are found in two locations, intramural and intra-cystic ( J Nippon Med Sch 2005;72:29 ) Calcifications may be associated with neoplastic disease, either benign (teratoma, mucinous cystadenoma) or malignant (serous carcinoma

Certain medications may cause liver calcification. A calcified liver may be indicative of liver lesions or tumors, although liver calification is not commonly associated with a serious disorder or underlying condition.If, during a scan of the liver, the only irregularity seen is the presence of liver calcification, this is generally not a major cause for concern 6 Possible Causes Of Breast Cancer. Benign Calcifications. Lucent-centered calcifications, skin calcifications, rim or eggshell calcifications, milk of calcium calcifications, and arterial calcifications are some of the breast calcifications that are benign. Calcifications in the breast skin are often small, have clear centers, and are clearly. Thyroid calcification is a solid or semi-solid lump within the thyroid gland. Benign nodules include colloids, follicular adenomas, and some cysts that may grow to 1 inch (about 25 mm) in diameter. Noncancerous thyroid nodules are generally fluid-filled and comprised of thyroid tissue. Though they may multiply in number, benign calcifications. Calcification may be seen within weeks of the hemorrhage Bilateral adrenal calcifications . A coronal reformatted (above) and axial CT scan (below) of the upper abdomen show bilateral calcifications (red and white circles) in both adrenal glands Testicular microlithiasis. Testicular microlithiasis is a relatively common condition that represents the deposition of multiple tiny calcifications throughout both testes. The most common criterion for diagnosis of testicular microlithiasis is that of five microcalcifications in one testicle, although definitions have varied in the past

Calcification of the granuloma causes the granuloma to become hard and more prominent. Calcified Granuloma nevertheless is harmless nodules and very rarely requires any sort of treatment unless they become very large and dense in which case a removal is recommended. Otherwise, there are no particular health concerns with Calcified Granuloma The nodular calcifications seen on computed tomography are randomly distributed throughout the brain parenchyma. Microcephaly, hepatosplenomegaly, petechiae, jaundice, and seizures may occur Prostatic calcification is a common finding in the prostate gland, especially after the age of 50. Their number and size increase with age. The most common cause is prostatitis because prostatitis can cause prostatic gland tube blockage and calcif..

Pancreas Calcification - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

Knowing what entities cause calcifications and their typical appearance can help in an accurate diagnosis. However, imaging alone cannot be trusted for a definitive diagnosis because many of these entities overlap in their appearance . We report a spectrum of causes and imaging appearances related to calcification of the pancreas For the past 150 years, medical experts have recognized that dystrophic calcification (calcification of normal tissue) is a common component of the atherosclerotic lesion. The cause of the calcification is unclear, although an apoptotic mechanism resulting in cell death is thought to contribute to dystrophic calcification

Breast Calcifications | Radiology Key

Lymph node calcification occurs as a result of calcium deposits in the lymph node during normal swelling. When you have foreign microorganisms, the lymph nodes trap and screen out anything that will cause infections. This process causes swelling and is how your doctor knows you are suffering from an infection Another piece of evidence is that blood thinners like coumadin/warfarin which knock out vitamin K1 (and also K2) cause calcification. If there isn't any vitamin K to activate the MGP proteins then you will get calcification. Please read up on vitamin K2, the whole area of research on vitamin K dependent proteins is very exciting, very new and. Of 17 calcifications in that study, two were curvilinear and the rest were punctate; as one of the two curvilinear calcifications represented a mucinous cystadenoma, the authors wondered if a curvilinear calcification might be more significant than a punctate one

Soft Tissue Calcifications - UW Radiolog

  1. The calcification pattern in IPMN is indistinguishable from that in chronic pancreatitis; calcifications can be found in the pancreatic duct, parenchyma, or diffusely throughout the gland . Calcifications are reported in 20% of IPMNs. Punctate calcification is the most common pattern (87%), followed by coarse calcification (33%)
  2. We contrast two classifications of parotid calcifications: 1) intraductal stones that cause recurrent duct obstruction and are often located within the main parotid duct along or anterior to the masseter and 2) punctate intraparenchymal parotid gland calcifications that are not visualized on sialendoscopy and may represent underlying.
  3. Primary familial brain calcification is a condition characterized by abnormal deposits of calcium (calcification) in blood vessels within the brain. These calcium deposits are visible only on medical imaging and typically occur in the basal ganglia, which are structures deep within the brain that help start and control movement of the body
  4. Development of prostate calcification. Prostate stone is a later stage calcification. Prostate stones can cause chronic prostatitis and accompany urinary tract infection. It is a direct cause of secondary UTI. Harm of prostate calcification. The fibrosis and calcification is a scar which forms when you recover from prostatitis
  5. Learn all about the phleboliths symptoms, causes and complications. A phleboliths is a small local, usually rounded, calcification within a vein. These are very common in the veins of the lower part of the pelvis, and they are generally of no clinical importance

Vascular calcifications are common but potentially serious. They can increase your risk of stroke and blood clots, according to Cardiovascular Research. It's important to learn what causes calcification in the body and how to treat it. Contact the UPMC Heart and Vascular Institute or call 1-855-UPMC-HVI (876-2484) for screenings and appointments There are many causes of calcifications in the pelvis on X-ray, some are much more significant. Sometimes when a person is passing a kidney stone for example, it will look similar to a phlebolith. In rare cases, even cancer can have some calcification or white density within

Understanding Breast Calcification

  1. Other Causes. Calcification may occur in the parenchyma, or essential tissue, of the spleen. Possible causes include: • Phleboliths (stony deposits in veins) • Hemangioma (benign blood vessel tumor) • Splenic lymphoma (lymph tissue cancer) • Hematoma (mass of clotted blood in tissue or organ) Diffuse uniform calcification can result.
  2. Interestingly, calcifications in patients infected with toxoplasmosis may resolve after treatment. Congenital HIV infection is associated with periventricular frontal white-matter and cerebellar calcifications. Congenital herpes (HSV-2) infection is associated with thalamic, periventricular, and punctate cortical or extensive gyral calcifications
  3. Calcification in the uterus or ovaries is not a sign of cancer. In fact it is usually as reassuring, benign finding (seen in fibroids, old placental sites after pregnancy, benign dermoid cysts of the ovaries. These are the important points about gynecologic cancers: cervical cancer: detected on pap smears, diagnosed by biopsies of the cervix.
Ultrasonography of the uterus

What Causes Breast Calcifications? Calcifications can be a sign of breast cancer; however, they are mainly harmless. Here are some primary causes: They might be caused by a previous injury to the breast, which causes death or damage of the tissue or fat necrosis. In this case, increased calcium deposits in the breast take place Figure 3: Causes of chronic pancreatitis.The most common cause of chronic pancreatitis in the United States is alcohol and smoking. Other causes include genetic mutations, cystic fibrosis, hypercalcemia (or elevated calcium levels in the blood), hypertriglyceridemia (or elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood), autoimmune, or idiopathic, meaning that the cause is still unknown Nephrocalcinosis is a disorder in which there is too much calcium deposited in the kidneys. It is common in premature babies. Nephrocalcinosis is related to, but not the same as, kidney stones (nephrolithiasis). Conditions that can cause nephrocal.. Answers (3) Unfortunately, pancreatic calcification is scar tissue that has formed due to inflammation. It can be caused by frequent bouts with pancreatitis, but is definitely worsened by alcohol consumption. Chronic pancreatitis can be caused by heredity, blockage of the pancreatic common duct by a stone or scar tissue, cystic fibrosis.

Prostate Calcification - Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and

Four CT findings had a specificity of over 60% for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis: parenchymal calcifications, intraductal calcifications, parenchymal atrophy, and cystic lesions Round calcifications are typically benign. They vary in size, and are called punctate when they are smaller than 0.5 mm. Punctate calcifications are distinct, with a round, pearl-like and uniform appearance. Punctate calcifications are often associated with fibrocystic changes, and they are often diffuse and scattered in both breasts Round and punctate calcifications. Round calcifications are 0.5-1 mm in size and frequently form in the acini of the terminal duct lobular unit. When smaller than 0.5 mm, the term 'punctate' is used. Round and punctate calcifications can be seen in fibrocystic changes or adenosis, skin calcifications, skin talc and rarely in DCIS Thyroid calcifications are a non-specific finding that some kind of process is going on in your thyroid gland. It could be something benign or a small tumor. The first step is to do thyroid function tests to determine if your thyroid gland is working properly. Your doctor may then decide to do a thyroid scan to see if there are any areas that.

Calcifications on thyroid ultrasound do not necessarily

And surprisingly, pineal gland calcification can lead to physiological and psycho-spiritual issues, contributing to disease and a lower quality of life. For a gland that not many people know much about, it can cause absolute chaos within the body Sayer Ji on his website GreenMedInfo writes a thorough report on pineal calcification as a cause of Alzheimer's disease. Of course, in my magnesium world any sort of calcification means magnesium deficiency and the treatment is saturation levels of magnesium to overcome the deficiency. He mentions magnesium in the article but unfortunately. A testicular calcification sonography or ultrasound is the most common screening procedure carried out, to see if the testicles contain a build up of calcium. While going through the testicular calcification ultrasound, the man needs to lie down, flat on his back, on the examination table, with his legs spread

I have copied this description of calcification from the Cancer Research Website, as you might find it helpful:-. With early stage breast cancer, there might not be a lump. But your mammogram may show small areas of calcium in the breast tissue. These areas of calcium are called calcification Calcifications of the soft tissue structures in the head and neck can occur either as physiological or pathological mineralization. Pathological mineralization is more likely to occur in articular cartilage, vascular tissues, ligaments and glandular tissues and is usually associated with chronic inflammation or scarring The arteriosclerotic calcification is the major cause of heart disease. The metabolic syndrome is considered as a clustering of the high cholesterol, hypertension, hyperglycemia and arteriosclerotic disease. The arteriosclerotic has become a leading reason for the people death. Nowadays most of people suffer from this disease The wear and tear of aging is the primary cause of degenerative calcification. As we age, blood flow to the tendons of the rotator cuff decreases. This makes the tendon weaker. Due to the wear and tear as we use our shoulder, the fibers of the tendons begin to fray and tear, just like a worn-out rope. Calcium deposits form in the damaged. Sir: Figure. We read with great interest Hall-Findlay's article about breast implant complications 1 and the comment on the article written by Robinson. 2 They show their experience with the double capsule and discuss the cause of this complication, explaining how the texture of the implant may facilitate the occurrence of double capsule, the pathogenesis of which still remains obscure

Periductal calcifications appear as hollow cylinders. These calcifications are usually seen in the subareolar area, and branch out along the ductal system (Fig. 4). Round calcifications may vary in size from 2 to 4 mm. The term punctate can be used when calcifications are less than 0.5 mm in size Breast calcifications, or small calcium deposits in breast tissue, are signs of cellular turnover - essentially, dead cells - that can be visualized on a mammogram or observed in a breast biopsy. Calcifications are generally harmless and are often a result of aging breast tissue. On rare occasions, however, calcifications can be an early. vertebrae. Calcification of the pancreas is usually found in chronic pancreatitis, although there are some rarer causes. If calcification is extensive, the full outline of the pancreas may be observed, mostly on the left side, but may cross over the mid-line. This speckled calcification occurs on the network of ducts within the pan Calcifications Pancreatic calcification burden can be graded/scored by taking into account the number of punctate and macro calcifications. As punctate calcifications can be senescent, macro. punctate or diffuse in ducts. hereditary pancreatitis. hemorrhage/hematoma. tumors. serous cystadenoma. benign, female, tiny cysts, (but may be up to 2cms) large tumor, may be head body or tail, central stellate scar, +/- calcification. mucinous cystadenoma/ cystadenocarcinom

Calcifications may be related to older age, past injury or inflammation, or swelling of the breast tissue (such as from an infection). How Common are They? Calcifications are found on about half of all mammograms in women ages 50 and older. For women under 50, one in 10 mammos will show calcifications. Should I be Concerned Pleural fibrosis and calcification are usually benign sequelae of pleural inflammation or asbestos exposure. These disorders are suspected and diagnosed based on imaging studies. Treatment of fibrosis and calcification themselves is generally unnecessary. Rarely, very large areas of fibrosis require surgical removal fig 1.. Calcification in aspergillosis. A, Coronal CT scan shows irregular nodular (short arrow) and fine punctate (long arrow) calcification within the inflammatory tissue at the center of the opacified left maxillary sinus. B, Photomicrograph of surgical specimen shows mottled calcifications (arrow) embedded within the fungal mycelium (hematoxylin-eosin, original magnification ×100) Causes of Pineal Gland Calcification. As noted above, calcification tends to become more severe with age, with many people experiencing symptoms of heavy calcification of the pineal gland by the time they are 17. This means that an MRI or other scan would show a large lump of calcium phosphate on the gland as well as other parts of the body Brain calcifications can occur after stroke, brain injury. Sometimes brain tumors can get calcified. Calcifications in the brain can lead to epilepsy also. It is very difficult to tell the exact cause of calcification in your case without tests like MRI and CT scan. The vertigo may be a symptom of menopause

Multiple intracranial calcifications Radiology Reference

The differential diagnosis for linear calcifications includes two important benign causes, secretory calcifications and vascular calcifications. Linear calcifications can be associated with benign secretory disease of the breast; these calcifications are often bilateral, regional, and seen in older women What is Prostate Calcification. Prostate calcification is a scar that left after healing of inflammation of prostate. It is a precursor of prostate stones. Prostate stones are often accompanied with chronic prostatitis, and the lesions can be seen by B-ultrasound. The prostate calcification will cause the breeding of bacteria Optic drusen, which appear as punctate calcifications near the optic disc on cross-sectional images, are a cause of benign (and usually bilateral) pseudopapilledema (, Fig 27). Optic drusen are typically seen in patients with age-related macular degeneration; however, they also may be seen in relatively young patients ( , 24 ) Pelvic calcification is the accumulation of calcium deposits in the lower abdomen, states the Northwestern College of Chiropractic. Pelvic calcifications such as phleboliths are very common, affecting around 35 percent of individuals over the age of 40. Most pelvic calcifications do not cause any symptoms or problems Amorphous, peripherally located calcifications have also been reported in metastatic ovarian papillary carcinoma secondary to the production of psammoma bodies. 1-3 Treatment-related punctate calcific densities have been reported in patients with long standing history of gold intramuscular injections for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. 4.

Calcification: Types and treatmen

calcifications with clustered punctate, amorphous and pleomorphic as the most frequently encountered pattern. • Can appear as a mass or asymmetry. - Ultrasound • Commonly appears as an oval, often circumscribed, hypoechoic solid mass. • Sometimes demonstrates echogenic calcifications. • May demonstrate increased - MR · Histoplasmosis is the most common cause of fibrosing mediastinitis · Common cause of diffuse punctate splenic calcifications. o Spleen is more frequent site of calcifications than liver. o DDX: Brucellosis, TB, Candidiasis in immunocompromised patients § Number of calcifications: more than 6, more likely histoplasmosi Calcium deposit in brain is a condition that we familiarize only when it is discovered on X-ray or other imaging strategies. Some people likewise call it calcification in brain, calcinosis or Fahr's syndrome. With whatever name we call, the cause for calcium deposit in brain stays the same

I had a follow up mammogram and was told that there is an area of diffuse punctate calcifications and fibroglandular elements. What does this all mean? and why referral to breast specialist? It looks like you have javascript turned off Chondrodysplasia punctate (CDP) is a rare group of disorders with both genetic and non-genetic underlying aetiologies. The genetic causes associated with CDP include peroxisomal disorders, type two mucolipidosis, type 3 mucopolysaccharidosis, GM1 gangliosidosis and chromosomal disorders. Peroxisomal disorders include deficiency of dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase, encoded by GNPAT. Two patterns of calcification are encountered on plain radiographs: punctate and trabecular/reticular types . The incidence of calcification correlates with disease duration and severity. Patients with longer disease duration present primarily with the trabecular type . Besides, the presence of these calcification causes poor wound healing Although fat necrosis can result in eggshell calcifications, calcification in the walls of cysts is the most common cause of eggshell or rim calcifications. Coarse or popcornlike calcifications Fibroadenomas are the most common breast masses seen in women younger than 35 years Skin calcification is commonly related to sebaceous glands and appears as lucent, centered rings in a peripheral location (Figure 3-13A). Skin calcification may be punctate or irregular, and may appear to lie within the breast parenchyma on standard views

Breast Microcalcifications on mammogram - Moose and DocDiagnosis and surgical treatment of multiple endocrineRecognizing Some Common Causes of Intracranial Pathology212 best Ultrasound Images images on PinterestEpendymoma | Radiology Case | Radiopaedia

A: Calcifications in liver are most of the time innocent bystanders. They may be due to previous healed infection. I would recommend repeating ultrasound in 6 months to document stability. Your increased liver tests are due to fatty liver. Continue to lose weight and reduce cholesterol There are many causes of prostate calcification, one of which is prostatitis, a common urogenital disease in males. When having prostatitis, it will easily cause calcium salt precipitation in the body, gradually forming calcification. 2. Urine reflux Intracranial calcification occurs in the brain parenchyma, meninges and choroid plexus, and within vessel walls [].Intracranial calcification can be categorized into six groups: physiological, infectious, congenital, endocrine/metabolic, vascular and neoplastic [].Notwithstanding its cause, intracranial calcification is often a nonspecific neuroimaging feature that generally requires. Endocrine/metabolic causes of intracranial calcification form a vast and heterogeneous group of diseases that sometimes mimic TORCH (toxoplasmosis, other [syphilis, varicella-zoster, parvovirus B19], rubella, cytomegalovirus and herpes) infections. Parathyroid and thyroid function abnormalities are well-known causes of intracranial calcification Testicular-calcifications Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Malignant Neoplasm of the Testis. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search